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Electric motor maintenance knowledge
发布时间:2018-9-5 17:40:12      点击次数:770

[abstract] during the installation of the motor, impurities on the surface of the motor components should be cleaned first to avoid affecting the normal operation of the motor, and the hub body should be firmly fixed to avoid the collision and damage of the components caused by strong attraction of the magnetic steel during the installation.

1. What is electrical machine?

A: the motor is the part that converts the electric energy of the battery into mechanical energy and drives the wheel rotation of the electric vehicle.

What is a stator?

Answer: the part with or without brush motor does not rotate when working. The motor shaft of the hub type brushless or brushless toothless motor is called stator. This motor can be called internal stator motor.

What is a rotor?

Answer: the part that turns when brush or brushless motor is working. The case of a hub type brushless or brushless toothless motor is called a rotor. This motor can be called an outer rotor motor.

What is a carbon brush?

Answer: the brush motor is mounted on the surface of the commutator. When the motor is rotating, the electrical energy is transferred to the coil through the commutator. As its main component is carbon, it is called carbon brush, which is easy to wear. Regular maintenance and replacement should be carried out and carbon deposition cleaned.

What is a brush holder?

Answer: the mechanical guide slot holding the position of carbon brush in the brush motor.

6. What is a phase changer?

Answer: in the brush motor, there is a strip metal surface of mutual insulation. As the motor rotates, the strip metal alternately contacts with the positive and negative pole of the brush, realizing the alternating change of the current direction of the motor coil and completing the phase change of the brush motor coil.

What is a phase sequence?

Answer: the arrangement sequence of brushless motor coils.

8. What is magnetic steel?

Answer: usually used as a magnetic material with high magnetic intensity, electric motor USES ndfeb rare earth magnetic steel.

9. What is a brush motor?

Answer: when the motor works, the coil and commutator rotate. The magnetic steel and carbon brush do not rotate. The alternating change of the coil current direction is completed by the commutator and brush which rotate with the motor. In the electric vehicle industry brush motor component high speed brush motor and low speed brush motor. There are a lot of differences between brush motors and brushless motors. It can be seen from the name that brush motors have carbon brushes and brushless motors have no carbon brushes.

10. What is brushless motor?

A: the controller provides direct current of different current directions to achieve alternating current directions in the motor, and there is no brush or commutator between the rotor and stator of the brushless motor.

11. How to realize phase change of the motor?

Answer: when brushless or brush motor is rotating, the power direction of coil inside motor needs to be changed alternately, so as to achieve continuous motor rotation. The phase change * commutator with brush motor and brush motor are completed together, and the brushless motor * controller is completed.

What is phase deficiency?

Answer: in the three-phase circuit of brushless motor or brushless controller, one phase cannot work. The main phase and the hall phase are missing. The motor shake is unable to work, or the rotation is weak and the noise is high. The controller is easy to burn up in the absence of phase.

13. What are the common types of motor?

Answer: common motors are: brushless pinion hub motor, brush brushless pinion hub motor, brush brushless pinion hub motor, brush brushless pinion hub motor, side hanging motor, etc.

14. How to distinguish high and low speed motors from the types of motors?

Answer :a has a brush motor with gear hub, and a brushless motor with gear hub belongs to a high-speed motor;

B brushless pinium-free motor and brushless pinium-free motor belong to low speed motor.

15. How is the efficiency of the motor defined?

Answer: the efficiency of the motor is the ratio of the mechanical energy output by the motor to the electric energy provided by the power supply. With the letter "り" said.

16. How is the brushless motor classified?

A: from the phase Angle can be divided into two categories, namely, 60 ° and 120 ° phase Angle brushless motor; According to the speed, can be divided into high speed brushless motor and low speed brushless motor; According to whether the motor has a position sensor, it is divided into a position sensor brushless motor and a position sensor brushless motor.

17. What is a sensorless brushless motor?

Answer: for the brushless motor without position sensor, the motor must be pushed up first, so that the motor has a certain rotation speed, the controller can recognize the phase of brushless motor, and then the controller can supply power to the motor. Because it can not achieve zero - speed start, so very few. But because there are no sensors, there is one failure point missing and the cost is lower.

18. What is the approximate range of power consumption of brushless motor hall?

A: the power consumption range of brushless motor hall is approximately 6ma-20ma.

19. What is the voltage range of brushless motor hall?

Answer: the voltage range of brushless motor hall is usually 3-24v.

20. At what temperature can the general motor work normally? What is the maximum temperature the motor can withstand?

Answer: if the temperature of the motor cover is more than 25 degrees above the ambient temperature, it indicates that the motor temperature rise has exceeded the normal range, and the general motor temperature rise should be less than 20 degrees. Generally, the motor coil is made of enameled wire, and when the enameled wire is above 150 degrees, its paint film will fall off because of the high temperature, resulting in a short circuit of the coil. When the temperature of the coil is above 150 degrees, the temperature of the motor enclosure will be around 100 degrees, so the maximum temperature of the motor will be around 100 degrees if the temperature of the coil enclosure is taken as the basis.

21, the rise of temperature of the motor should be below 20 ℃, namely, the temperature of the motor end cover more than the environment temperature should be less than 20 ℃, but what is the cause of the motor for more than 20 ℃ hot?

Answer: the direct cause of motor heating is caused by high current. In general, it may be caused by short circuit of the coil or open circuit, low efficiency of the motor in magnetic steel demagnetization, etc. Under normal circumstances, the power is running with large current for long time.

22. How to measure the phase Angle of brushless motor?

Answer: turn on the power supply of the controller. The controller supplies the hall element. Then the phase Angle of the brushless motor can be detected. Method is as follows: the multimeter + 20 v dc voltage, and the red pens and + 5 v line, black pens and measured three lead high and low voltage (where the red and black pens and the usage of a skill), according to the 60 ° and 120 ° motor commutation table controls.

23, if 60 ° brushless control is used in the 120 ° brushless motor will have what condition? And the reverse?

Answer: can cause the phenomenon that lacks phase, cannot run normally; But tianjin pine is developed an intelligent brushless controller can automatically recognize the 60 ° or 120 ° motor motor, which can be compatible with two motor adaptation, makes replacement easier maintenance.

24. What is the visual difference between a brush motor with high speed and a brush motor with low speed?

A. high speed motor has overrunning clutch (function like flywheel), easy to turn in one direction, hard to turn in the other direction; The low speed motor turns equally easily.

B. The noise of high-speed motor is larger while the noise of low-speed motor is smaller. Experienced people are easily identified by their ears.

25. How is the starting current of the motor defined?

Answer: it is generally required that the starting current of the motor should not exceed 2 ~ 5 times of its rated current, which is also an important reason for limiting current protection on the controller.

26. Why is the motor speed on the market getting higher and higher and what is the impact?

A. Speed increase on the supplier side can reduce the cost, and it is also a low-speed motor. The high speed makes coil turns less, saves silicon steel sheet and magnetic steel.

B. When rated speed is operated, its efficiency remains unchanged, but it is significantly lower in the low speed zone, i.e., weak starting.

C. Low efficiency, need to start with large current, large cycling current, high flow limitation on the controller and poor battery.

27. How to repair the abnormal heating of motor?

Answer: the method of repair treatment is to replace motor commonly, or undertake maintenance.

28. When the no-load current of the motor is greater than the limit data of the reference table, it indicates that the motor has a fault. How is it maintained?

Answer: motor internal mechanical friction big; Coil local short circuit; Magnetic steel demagnetization; Dc motor commutator carbon deposition. The maintenance treatment method is usually to replace the motor, or replace the carbon brush, clean carbon deposition.

29. What is the maximum no-load current for various motors?

Motor formRated voltage 24vRated voltage 36v
Side hang machine2.2a1.8a
High speed brush motor1.7a1.0a
Low speed brush motor1.0a0.6a
High speed brushless motor1.7a0.6a
Low speed brushless motor1.0a0.6a

1. Slow speed and strong sense of demurrency in human cycling

(1) front brake or brake (expansion brake) friction with the rotating part before and after adjustment the gap between the brake and the rotating part should not only make the rotation flexible, but also ensure good brake performance.

(2) the chain is too tight

(3) the front and rear shaft gears and the central shaft parts and the cap are too tight or the parts wear away -- loose fasteners, or replace the worn parts.

(4) insufficient inflation of front and rear tires -- tire inflation to the full.

2. The battery is sufficient, but the two red lights will go out under the load

(1) low output voltage of charger -- troubleshooting as per charger maintenance method.

(2) short battery charging time -- recharging to extend charging time.

(3) the battery pack or the single capacity shall be reduced.

(4) electrode damage or poor contact: replace the electrode.

3. Stop, fast, slow, and weak when driving

(1) poor connection of seven cores -- changing seven core wires.

(2) hall power failure brake contact bad change hall power failure brake.

4. The battery is sufficient, and the display light is all on, but the load wheel hub cannot rotate

(1) gear wear and sliding - change gears.

(2) partial short circuit of hub motor windings to replace the motor.

(3) bicycle assembly problem or parts wear - change vibration rubber.

5. The electric drive has irregular stopping

(1) loose or poor electrical conduction of the controller and the electric hub connector, re-plug the connector or replace it.

(2) bad contact between carbon brush and rotor of hub motor -- troubleshooting as per hub maintenance method.

6. Electric drive noise

(1) wheel hub and gear lack oil. Open the wheel hub and apply the gear grease.

(2) gear defect -- change gears.

(3) damaged bearing of gear housing.

1. Remove the battery

Before disassembling the motor, the lead of the motor and the controller should be pulled out. At this time, the one-to-one correspondence between the color of the motor and the color of the controller must be recorded.

Clean the area before opening the motor end cover to prevent sundries from being sucked onto the magnetic steel inside the motor. Mark the position of the end cover relative to the hub. Note: screw must be loose diagonally to avoid motor housing deformation.

The radial clearance between the rotor and stator of the motor is called air gap (air gap). Generally, the air gap of the motor is between 0.25 and 0.8mm. After the motor is disassembled and the motor fault is eliminated, the original end cover mark must be assembled.

2. Lubrication of motor internal gear

If the noise of the operation of the brushed and unbrushed gear motor begins to increase, or if the gear inside the motor is replaced, all tooth surfaces of the gear should be covered with grease, generally using no. 3 grease or lubricating oil specified by the manufacturer.

3. Assembly of motor

Before assembling the brush motor, please check the spring in the brush grip, check whether the brush and brush grip touch, check whether the brush can reach the maximum stroke in the brush grip, and pay attention to the correct positioning of the brush and commutator, so as not to damage the brush or brush grip.

During the installation of the motor, impurities on the surface of the motor components should be cleaned first so as not to affect the normal operation of the motor, and the hub body must be firmly fixed, so as to avoid the collision and damage of the components caused by strong attraction of the magnetic steel during the installation.

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